Abstracts of major research projects
Soluble proteins from untreated and stress-treated leaves were separated using denaturating (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis. To analyse the effect of biotic and abiotic stresses on antioxidative responses of transgenic maize at the level of enzyme activity we assessed isoforms of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) using native electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. Simultaneously the activity of total POX was quantified spectrophotometrically.
Under the present experimental conditions the abundance of some polypeptides changed but their pattern was comparable between transgenic (MON) and non-transgenic line (ISO). Transformation up-regulated the activity of most isoforms of SOD, down-regulated the activity of POX-2 and CAT-3 isoforms and resulted in the appearance of POX-1 isoform. Used stresses (single biotic/abiotic and double) stronger increased the activity of SOD isoforms in transgenic plants than in ISO plants. The four-day-lasting water deficit more effectively than feeding of two-spotted spider mite enhanced POX activity and less effectively increased the activity of SOD and CAT isoforms in both cultivars. Compare to the control, in transgenic plants, the lower increase of POX activity after mite-feeding and double stress (water deficit+mite-feeding) was observed. In MON plants CAT activity decreased, whereas in ISO plants an increase of CAT activity was documented. Only in MON plants exposed to the double stress CAT activity showed an increase.
DĄBROWSKI Z.T, GARNIS J., KROPCZYŃSKA-LINKIEWICZ D., SIKORSKI P., WYSOCKI C., BOCZEK J. The role of ecological infrastructure in IPM: the case studies on phytophagous and predatory mites on strawberry and raspberry plantations.
The interdisciplinary research project between academic staff of Department of Applied Entomology and Department of Environmental Protection brought together acarologists, ecologists and phytosociologists to evaluate the effect of vegetation surrounding strawberry and raspberry plantations as resources for predatory mites (Phytoseiidae). Both vegetation growing on the field margin as well in the close distance to the crops were included in the phytosociological analysis. The mite community evaluation included both the phytophagous and predatory mite species. Following predatory mite species as: Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, Neoseiulus reductus, Phytoseius echinus were identified as an effective natural enemies of spider mites on both crops. The weeds growing on field margins mainly served as a “bridge” for predatory mites migrating from trees and shrubs of hedges or woodland patches surrounding plantations. .
DĄBROWSKI Z.T., HUREJ M., KLUKOWSKI Z., TWARDOWSKI J., BEREŚ P., GRABOWSKI M. Effect of genetically modified (GM) maize with the gene cry 1 Ab expression (Bt) on environment: Influence on some groups of arthropods.
The first large field project on the impact of Bt maize expressing Cry 1 Ab toxin protein to Ostrinia nubilalis on non-target fauna was established in Poland in co-operation with Rzeszów Field Research Station of Plant Protection Institute and Department of Plant Protection of University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Wrocław) in 2008 season and continued to 2010. The effect of GM maize hybrid – DKC 3421 Yield Gard (Monsanto Co.) in comparison to its non-Bt original cultivar DKC 3420 and two Polish conventional hybrids on phytophagous non-target species and their natural enemies as well epigeic Carabidae and Staphylinidae was evaluated in two locations: south-eastern and south-western Poland, where European corn borer is a regular pest. Two week samples of various groups of insects were collected from green maize plants and in plastic pitfall traps between end of May do middle of September. The preliminary qualitative and quantitative analysis did not show significant differences in arthropod fauna between Bt and non-Bt maize hybrids.
The above project is a part of the larger research program on the environmental and economic aspects of releasing GM crops co-ordinated by Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization in Radzików.
DĄBROWSKI Z.T., GARNIS J.. CHORĄŻY A., Predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) occurring on vegetations surrounding strawberry and raspberry plantations and their role as the natural enemies of two - spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on those crops.
Our previous field observations confirmed that predatory mites (Acarida: Phytoseiidae) are one of the most important natural enemies of spider mites on strawberry and raspberry crops. The field and laboratory experiments showed that Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) is one of the most effective predatory species in reduction of spider mite population to a low level. However, it was also observed that irrational pesticide treatments during the growning season was responsible for the low abundance of phytoseids on both crops. The laboratory tests were conduced 2010 to determine the selectivity/toxicity of the pesticides commonly used on strawberry crop as Mospilan 20 SP, Mythos 300 SC and Ortus 05 SC to A. andersoni. All tested compounds caused high mortality of A. andersoni females during 48 hours. For effective application of predatory mites, additional experiments are needed to identify selective insecticides and fungicides used for protection of strawberry plantation
GÓRECKA J., DĄBROWSKI Z.T. Evaluation of unintended effects of genetically modified (GM) maize MON 810 on non-target organisms and tri-trophic systems.
The first project initiated in 2004 in Poland on unintended effects of MON 810 maize expressing Cry 1 Ab toxin concentrated on evaluation of methods used under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Both effects: direct via plant tissues and pollen and indirect by potential modification of GM plant metabolism were evaluated. It was confirmed that out of three phytophagous species used in the experiment two species: (a) two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) feeding on GM maize leaves and (b) larvae of stored product pest – Ephestia kuehniella feeding on the GM maize flour ingested the Cry 1 Ab toxin and did not bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi). The contamination of the mites’ body by the toxin did not affected biology and feeding behaviour of their predator – Phytoseiulus persimilis. The changes in the MON 810 metabolisms (as compare to its non-GM isogenic cultivar) modifying the development and fecundity of. R padi did not affected biology of its parasitic braconid (Aphidius colemani) neither its predators - lady-beetle (Adalia bipunctata) and chrysopid (Chrysoperla carnea). The experiment showing the unexpected negative effect of pollen both from the GM and non-Bt maize poured on the white cabbage leaves on the Pieris rapae caterpillar growth and development, indicated that techniques used in the pollen collection and storage should be critically reviewed and experiments repeated.
The chemical analysis of Cry 1 Ab content in MON 810 plants of 7th leaf stage showed significant differences between leaves with higher content in the upper leaves. A special precaution should be taken in using various GM maize leaves in bio-assays on insect behaviour and development.
GRABOWSKI M., LEGUTOWSKA H., BABIAK J. Useful fauna occurring on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)
A stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) can be used as a medicinal herb, a cosmetic ingredient, or as source of a fiber in the textile industry. This plant plays an important role in the agricultural environment, because in can be a habitat for predators and parasitoids of many arthropod pests. Other insect species inhabiting a stinging nettle pose no threat to the agriculture, since they are mainly related with a stinging nettle itself.
A research on the useful fauna inhabiting a stinging nettle has been conducted in three different places in Łomianki near Warsaw. The insects arthropods have been collected using an entomological scoop and Barber s pitfall traps.
A study of whole collected entomofauna (of both useful and harmful species) inhabiting a stinging nettle in three stands were performed. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of individuals occurrence, depending on the places in which they were collected.
GRABOWSKI M., DĄBROWSKI Z.T. Attempt to choose carabid (Carabidae) species used as an indicator of the impact of genetically modified maize expressing resistance to insect pests.
Based on the recent international discussions on environmental risk assessment (ERA) for genetically modified (GM) plants (EFSA 2008) , the carabids’ community of maize fields were chosen for establishing a methodology to select a proper bio-indicators. The GM maize varieties expressing Bt Cry 1 and Cry 3 may differently affect biology of carnivorous and phytophagous carabid species and the flow of the toxin between trophic levels. Two criteria were used to select carabid species for the future standard laboratory tests: (a) prevalence in the communities of two experimental maize fields in central and south-eastern Poland as compared to Czech and (b) a species’ food preference.
LEGUTOWSKA H, SADY E. Influence of methods to fight with the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ochridella) the degree of leaf damage and numbers of overwintering pupae in selected stends in Warsaw.
Observations of methods of white horse chestnut’s protection against the, invasive species – horse chestnut leaf-miner (Cameraria ohridella). Injections, biological treatments, impact of rootstock on the basis of Aesculus × carnea, sex pheromones, sticky sheets or chemical methods are discussed. During the studies the methods of horse chestnut protection were compared. Four stands were examined to determine the influence of different control methods on the amount of larvae and pupae of horse chestnut leaf-miner which were collected from the autumn fallen leaves. According to the results the most effective methods control of the pest are leave raking and injections. Badly performed treatments are completely pointless and do not give any successful results. Lack of tree protection leads to almost complete destruction of white horse chestnut by the pest.
LEWANDOWSKI M., KAŹMIERCZAK B., BOCZEK J. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) inhabiting native species of coniferous plants in Poland.
The aim of the study was to determine the community of eriophyoid, phytoseiid and tetranchyid mites occurring on native coniferous plants in Poland. From June to September. 2006-2010, samples of coniferous shrubs and trees were collected from different parts of Poland. At the laboratory, the number of mites. relation with the host plant. as well as an microhabitats within a plant was noted. The collected mites were then mounted in Berlese medium following the method of Amrine and Manson (1996).
During the studies 25 species of eriophyoid mites were found. Two of them: Cupacarus abietis n.sp. and Tegonotus jaworzynus n.sp. occurring on Abies alba (Pinaceae), were new for science and seven species were new for Polish fauna: Boczekella laricis Farkas, 1965, Nalepella danica Boczek, Harding & Shi, 2002, Nalepella haarlovi Boczek, 1962, Setoptus multigranulatus Castagnoli, 1973, Trisetacus silvestris Keifer, 1963, Trisetacus gemmavitians Styer, Nielsen & Balderstron, 1972, Trisetacus laricis (Tubeuf, 1897), Trisetacus piceae (Roivainen, 1951). Morphological analysis allowed to redescribe three species, seting up two new combinations (Calepiitrinerus juniperi (Szulc, 1967) and Proiectus farkasi (Boczek, 1969) and two new synonyms (Boczekella retucukata Bagnyuk, 1987 and Phyllocoptes piceae Soika, 1999. Moreover, on examined plants seven species of phytoseiid and two of tetranychid mites were found, Among phytoseiid mite species occurring on coniferous plants three were new for Polish fauna: Anthoseius inopinatus Wainstein, 1975, Anthoseius toruli Karg & Edland, 1987, Typhlodromus singularis (Chant, 1957).
Basing on the abundance of the eriophyoid mites infestation parameters, biodiversity and domination structures of the mites community were calculated. In a case of some Trisetacus species morphological variability was studied. The results of the analysis indicate a large variability among populations of the examined species.
LUX S. A. Stochastic model of on-farm fruit fly behaviour and their response to IPM interventions .
The model attempts to link age-dependant fruit fly dispersal behavior, mating and oviposition with effects of field topography and nearby environmental reservoirs of the pest etc., and these with individual or combined effects of various IPM interventions applied in a specific time regime (application of bait sprays, sterile males, pesticide spray, baiting stations, release of predators or parasitoids, orchard sanitation etc.
A beta-version of the “model engine” - an active software construct dynamically emulating a stochastic Markov-like process – was prepared and is being evaluated. It is used to emulate behaviour and lifetime events of individual insects - to generate for each of them stochastically equivalent, but individually unique behavioural sequence. The stochastic simulation process is utilising a data-base of basic biological parameters, prepared earlier during the project.
TOMCZYK A., RUDZIŃSKA D., KOWARA M. Influence of selected plant biostimulators on cucumber injury by two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) and western flower trip (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande).
Studies were conducted under glasshouse conditions on cucumber cv. Aramis treated with 2 biostimulators: Asahi SL (mixture of phenolic compounds) and Siapton 10 L (solution of amino acids). In the case of every pest three groups of plants were compared: control plants (untreated with biostimulators but infested by trips or mites), treated with Asahi SL and treated with Siapton 10 L. Both biostimulators (specially Siapton) stimulated development of trips and increased injury of cucumber as the result of their feeding. Development of T. urticae population on the plants treated with biostimulators was decreased, the mite infested plants sprayed with Asahi as well as with Siapton grew faster and produced more flowers as compared to the plants without biostimulators.
WOŹNIAK K., DĄBROWSKI Z. T. Application of the alternative method in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) control to enhancement ecological stability of apple orchard.
The efficacy of codling moth male disruption techniques and application of Carpovirusine Super S.C. (vital preparation with specific action on codling moth larvae) in comparison to two synthetic insecticides (Decis 2.5 EC and Calypso 480 SC) was evaluated under orchard conditions in four locations in three growing seasons. Some additional experiments on the C. pomonella male and female dispersion behaviour, using sticky traps containing the sexual pheromone and pear ester kairomone, as affected by the landscape were carried on a smaller scale. The two alternative control methods proofed their efficacy to control both generation of the codling moth and long term positive ecological impact Their specific biological activities led to increase of pest natural enemies as predatory Colleoptera, Neuroptera, Heteroptera, Araneida and Acarina and significantly reduced burdensome of orchard protection against pests. The four year field experiments demonstrated that the variation in the codling moth population level between neighbouring orchards (due to the farmer’s attention to pest control) requires individual planning of the pest control strategy, including additional treatment with synthetic insecticides to control tortrids species attacking apple fruits in Poland.